J.M.C. Hutchinson 2000.
Three into two doesnt go; two-dimensional models of bird eggs, snail
shells, and plant roots. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 70: 161187.
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doi: 10.1006/bijl.1999.0395 to access article via journal.
Some further papers of relevance to the broad theme
Roth, V.L. 1993. On three-dimensional morphometrics, and on the identification of landmark points. Pp. 41-61 in Contributions to Morphometrics (L.F. Marcus, E. Bello & A. García-Valdecasas, eds) . Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales CSIC, Madrid.
Cuddington, K.M. & Yodzis, P. 2000. Diffusion-limited predator-prey dynamics in Euclidean environments: an allometric individual-based model. Theoretical Population Biology 58: 259278.
Fan, J., Liu, F., Wu, J. & Dai, W. 2003. Visual perception of female physical attractiveness. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 271: 347352.
Abbott, A. 2003. Biologys new dimension. Nature 424: 870872. (See also the second editorial on p. 861)
Clegg, R.J. & Kreft, J.-U. 2017. Reducing discrepancies between 3D and 2D simulations due to cell packing density. Journal of Theoretical Biology 423:2630.
Vivancos, A., Close, G. & Tentelier, C. 2017. Are 2D space-use analyses adapted to animals living in 3D environments? A case study on a fish shoal. Behavioral Ecology 28: 485493.
Cardiniab, A. & Chiapellia, M. 2020. How flat can a horse be? Exploring 2D approximations of 3D crania in equids. Zoology 139: 125746.
Smith, A.L., Davis, J., Panagiotopoulou, O., Taylor, A.B., Robinson, C., Ward, C.V., Kimbel, W.H., Alemseged, Z. & Ross, C.F. 2023. Does the model reflect the system? When two-dimensional biomechanics is not ‘good enough’. Interface: 2020220536.
Our own paper on rates of random encounter between moving items also provides lots of examples of different relations in 3 dimensions than 2: Hutchinson, J.M.C. & Waser, P.M. 2007. Use, misuse and extensions of “ideal gas” models of animal encounter. Biological Reviews 82: 335359.
Johnson et al. (2001) conduct an intraspecific comparison of egg shape, showing no relation to clutch size.
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